One of the unique aspects of the WTO as an international organization is that it authorizes members to retaliate against violations by raising tariffs. These authorizations have become increasingly common and increasingly controversial. In this analysis of the retaliation system, Robert Lawrence considers the guiding principles that govern responses to WTO violations, examines how these principles are implemented in practice, and considers options for reform.
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2. Role of Remedies in the WTO System
3. Practice Makes Imperfect
4. Imperfect Practice in the US-EU Trading Relationship
5. Options for Change
6. Concluding Comments